Formal law organizing the agricultural extension service sector in Ukraine is recent. . Inability to play this important role would further marginalize extension efforts. 1974: Extension involves the conscious use of communication of information to help people form sound opinions and make good decisions. These concerns forced the NIMC workers to commenced an. According to some media reports, the suspension of the strike by members of staff of the commission follows a meeting with the Federal Government, where it was agreed that their demands would be addressed. Omokolade Ajayi. Unified top-down extension: During the 1970s and 1980s, the Training and Visit system (T&V) was introduced by the, Diverse bottom-up extension: When World Bank funding came to an end, the T&V system collapsed in many countries, leaving behind a patchwork of programs and projects funded from various other sources. This field refers to the participatory extension model as a form of public relations-rooted two-way symmetric communication based on mutual respect, understanding, and influence between an organization and its stakeholders. AgriLife Extension delivers research-based educational programs and solutions for all Texans. This scheme attracted the attention of government officials in Germany, who organized their own system of traveling instructors. Effective agricultural extension service will boost food production – Agriculture Minister. Agriculture Extension Service. READ: Farmcrowdy to link UK-based Nigerians with investments in the Agri-Sector. Agricultural extension service is the foundation of sustainable agricultural development. With an office in each of the state’s ninety-five counties, UT Extension helps Tennesseans to improve their quality of life and solve problems through the application of research and evidenced-based knowledge about agriculture and natural resources, family and consumer sciences, 4-H youth development, and community development. It emphasizes taking knowledge gained through research and education and bringing it directly to the people to create positive changes. And if you bring home some fruit or vegetables and want to can, freeze, make jam, salsa or pickles, see this page for simple, reliable, illustrated canning, freezing or preserving directions . Nanono stressed the need for incentives that would foster and encourage the mobilisation and development of farmer groups around clusters to enhance agricultural extension services delivery to them through the Agric Extension Service Providers (AESP). Agricultural extension is a vehicle for accelerating technology transfer and adoption by providing information and advice to rural smallholders (Anderson and Feder, 2007;Feder et al., 2011). The 1994 Department Reorganization Act, passed by Congress, created CSREES by combining the former Cooperative State Research Service and the Extension Service into a single agency. THE VISION. Scroll down this page and follow the links. The development of extension services in modern Asia has differed from country to country. UT Extension provides Real. To assess the agricultural extension service reforms in Bangladesh, the authors reviewed some journals, reports, and information available on internet during July 2014–January 2015. These subject matter specialists work with agents (usually in a statewide or regional team environment) to support programs within the cooperative extension system. READ: FG apologizes, says Self-Certification directive is not for everyone. Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. University of Maryland Extension Educators Produce New Mindfulness Instruction Guide Farm Stress Training for Ag Service Providers - Program Annoucement Bill Hubbard Receives Prestigious Service to the Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals Award Ask an Expert is a way for you to get answers from the Oregon State University Extension Service. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. Mon 1/4 9 AM - Tue 1/5 4 PM OfflineEventAttendanceMode N.C. Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) puts knowledge to work in pursuit of economic vitality, ecological sustainability and social well-being. Modern extension began in Dublin, Ireland in 1847 with Lord Clarendon's itinerant instructors during the great famine. Drought Resources. SW Plant Selector App. Agricultural extension service is the foundation of sustainable agricultural development. [8] Other authors have abandoned the idea of extension as a distinct concept and prefer to think in terms of "knowledge systems" in which farmers are seen as experts rather than adopters.[9]. The minister also leased equipment to farmers, built grain stores and supplied free food during times of famine.[5]. googletag.pubads().definePassback('/42150330/nairametrics/Nairametrics_incontent_new', [300, 250]).set("page_url", "%%PATTERN:url%%").setClickUrl("%%CLICK_URL_UNESC%%").display(); Get the scoops and market intelligence that can helpyou make better investment decisions right in yourmailbox. Purdue Extension and the Heartland Career Center are providing education and hands-on learning opportunities for students interested in precision agriculture, a skill that is needed more every day as more technology is brought to Indiana farms. Alhaji Nanono disclosed that the ministry renewed its commitment to increase the contribution of agriculture to the country’s GDP. 1966: Extension personnel have the task of bringing scientific knowledge to farm families in the farms and homes. 1973: Extension is a service or system which assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques, increasing production efficiency and income, bettering their standard of living and lifting social and educational standards. This was disclosed by Mr. Joseph Attah, Public Relations Officer of Nigeria Customs Service (NCS), in a statement in Abuja on Thursday. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service delivers science-based educational programs to help Oklahomans solve local issues and concerns, promote leadership and manage resources wisely. Constant additional grazing in pastures can reduce leaf area and root growth to such an extent that a recovery may not be possible during the following spring. December 2, 2020. We help producers, farmers, and businesses build stronger and more diverse farm and food systems. President Buhari has assented to the Disability Bill and also inaugurated a National Commission for Persons with Disabilities. The private sector includes crop science industry, seed and input companies, distributors and agro-dealers, service providers of various kinds, food processors and retailers, and the content providers for agro-advisories. Cooperative Extension - Swain County Center, 60 Almond School Rd, Bryson City, NC 28713 NC State Extension 1 day ago “This I believe will make the extension system knowledge-based and a desirable service to be patronised by farmers.”. Among academics working in this field, some have recently argued that agricultural extension needs to be reinvented as a professional practice. Agricultural extension agencies in developing countries receive large amounts of support from international development organizations such as the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. With offices in all 46 counties of the state, Extension works to help support South Carolina’s $42 billion agriculture and forestry industries; strengthen families and communities; improve stewardship of natural resources and the environment; strengthen connections between people and their food; and expose South Carolina youth to opportunities in agriculture, science, technology, engineering and math. It is not the case that paternalistic systems are always persuasive, nor is it the case that participatory projects are necessarily educational. The examples given below are taken from a number of books on extension published over a period of more than 50 years: It is not known where or when the first extension activities took place. Omokolade Ajayi is a graduate of Economics, and a certificate holder of the CFA Institute’s Investment Foundation Program. Brunner, E. and Hsin Pao Yang, E. (1949) Rural America and the Extension Service, Columbia University. a business owner and a stern advocate of Financial literacy, who believes in the huge economic prospect of the Nigerian Payment channels and Fintech space. According to the information contained in the press statement issued by the Ministry’s Chief Information Officer, Mr Ezeaja Ikemefuna, today December 2, 2020, Alhaji Nanono made this disclosure while delivering his address at the Sensitisation Workshop on Revitalisation of Agricultural Extension in Nigeria, tagged: “Catalysing Effective Agricultural Extension Service Delivery at the Grassroots”. READ: Farmcrowdy to link UK-based Nigerians with investments in the Agri-Sector According to a news report by NAN, Alhaji Nanono disclosed that the ministry had taken full responsibility and also renewed its commitment to increase the contribution of agriculture to the GDP through the revitalization of agricultural extension service.. UGA Extension partners with universities to bring 4-H to Latin America The University of Georgia, The Ohio State University and Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural University, a private university in Honduras, partnered to facilitate 4-H programming during the COVID-19 pandemic at six Honduran schools, reaching 180 students. Extension’s Department of Agriculture & Natural Resources creates a bridge between Wisconsin’s ag and the environmental resources with the people that use them. Drought Resources. Southern University Agricultural Research & Extension Center Ashford O. Williams Hall 181 B. They also demanded for better welfare packages from the government, more allowances for the registration of NIN, which they described as an extra duty, amongst other issues. Ext / Exp Station Pubs. ACES News. They are sometimes referred to as county agents, or extension educators. READ: Can Agriculture replace Oil in Nigeria? It includes elements such as guiding principles, extension methods, structures/institutions for organizing target beneficiaries to access services, monitoring and … LSU AgCenter extension faculty work with our research and teaching faculty to assist parish county agents in delivering the latest research-based information to Louisiana citizens in both rural and metropolitan settings. Ext / Exp Station Pubs. From a practical point of view, however, communication processes that conform to each of these four paradigms are currently being organized under the name of extension in one part of the world or another. Most of these early activities were not, however, related to agriculture. Solutions. We have experts in family and health, community development, food and agriculture, coastal issues, forestry, programs for young people, and gardening. Define extension service. extension service synonyms, extension service pronunciation, extension service translation, English dictionary definition of extension service. “These include redefining the roles and responsibilities of the three tiers of government in the agricultural extension services and establishment of evaluation strategy with possible reprisal for actors that fail in their responsibilities in order to ensure accountability and commitment. Despite the variations, it is possible to identify a general sequence of four periods or "generations":[7], The fourth generation is well established in some countries, while it has only just begun in other places. The department’s major activity is to provide an agricultural extension service that advises farmers on improved farming systems and technologies that will assure increased productivity and improve their standards of living. Another program area provided by extension agents is 4-H and youth activities. There is some disagreement about whether or not the concept and name of 'extension' really encompasses all four paradigms. Two particular issues help to define the type of extension: how communication takes place, and why it takes place. 1982: Agricultural Extension: Assistance to farmers to help them identify and analyze their production problems and become aware of the opportunities for improvement. AES are aimed at implementing projects for change in the agricultural sector collaborating with the farmers. Ext / Exp Station Pubs. State Extension Leaders Network (SELN) 2006 'Enabling Change in Rural and Regional Australia: The role of extension in achieving sustainable and productive futures', online resource: www.seln.org.au. READ: NIMC workers embark on indefinite strike leaving thousands of applicants stranded, READ: #EndSARS: Activists petition courts to unfreeze accounts of supporters. Extension Services. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. 1988: Extension is a professional communication intervention deployed by an institution to induce change in voluntary behaviors with a presumed public or collective utility. In W. M. Rivera & D. J. Gustafson (Eds. Several of the institutional innovations that have come up in response to the weaknesses in public research and extension system have given enough indications of the emergence of an agricultural innovation system in India. Top-down teaching methods are employed, but students are expected to make their own decisions about how to use the knowledge they acquire. This has resulted in the blurring of the clearly demarcated institutional boundaries between research, extension, farmers, farmers' groups, NGOs and private enterprises. He is a business analyst, and equity market researcher, with wealth of experience as a retail investor. Troublesome Weeds. MARKET UPDATE: CBN’s historic agriculture lending; Is it yielding the desired results? Learn more by browsing our featured solutions and programs. “These are not known to 99 per cent of the farmers in the country. on. Cooperative Extension - Swain County Center, 60 Almond School Rd, Bryson City, NC 28713 N.C. It fills the gap of inefficient input delivery and customized advisory services. Your email address will not be published. Ask an Expert is a way for you to get answers from the Oregon State University Extension Service. Generally, agricultural extension can be defined as the “delivery of information inputs to farmers.” [1] The role of extension services is invaluable in teaching farmers how to improve their productivity. throughout Tennessee. Technology transfer (persuasive + paternalistic): This paradigm was prevalent in colonial times and reappeared in the 1970s and 1980s when the "Training and Visit" system was established across Asia. The minister, who was represented by Mr. Frank Kudla, the Director, Federal Department of Agricultural Extension, tasked stakeholders on key areas for robust discussions at the workshop. The minister said these also include boosting food production and increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the agriculture sector. The minister also leased equipment to farmers, built grain stores and supplied free food duri… Saville, A. H. (1965) Extension in Rural Communities: A Manual for Agricultural and Home Extension technician Workers. The restructuring of the American public agricultural research and technology transfer system: Implications for agricultural extension. Advisory work (persuasive + participatory): This paradigm can be seen today where government organizations or private consulting companies respond to farmers' inquiries with technical prescriptions. Extension provides non-formal education and learning activities to people throughout the country — to farmers and other residents of rural communities as well as to people living in urban areas. Formal law organizing the agricultural extension service sector in Ukraine is recent. It is not known where or when the first extension activities took place. Extension practitioners can be found throughout the world, usually working for government agencies. The evaluation and analysis of the agricultural extension service for sustainable agricultural development can provide an effective analytical tool for sustainable agriculture. Learn how your comment data is processed. It provides information to farmers and passes to the farmers new ideas developed by agricultural research stations. We have experts in family and health, community development, food and agriculture, coastal issues, forestry, programs for young people, and gardening. Cooperative Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Station publications. The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Often confused with Extension agents, Extension specialists are subject matter experts usually employed as scientists and university professors in various departments in the land-grant university system. With an office in every Tennessee county, UT Extension delivers educational programs and research-based information to the people of Tennessee. The National Agricultural Extension Service Delivery System is implemented using the approved structure and functions at National, District and Sub-county levels. [action label="Locations" link="/locations/"… [12] There are philosophical reasons behind these disagreements. NIMC has suspended the industrial action which they embarked upon on Thursday. [11], Any particular extension system can be described in terms of both how communication takes place and why it takes place. The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Responsible for the promotion of crop production, as well as promoting improved human nutrition. NIN enrollment resumes in all NIMC centers nationwide. [6] Between 1845–51 the Irish potato crop was destroyed by fungal diseases and a severe famine occurred. Looking for Find your local county extension office with this list of the agricultural extension offices across the US in 2021? The 1994 Department Reorganization Act, passed by Congress, created CSREES by combining the former Cooperative State Research Service and the Extension Service into a single agency. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. Topics and events include gardening, lawn irrigation, landscape maintenance, nutrition, health and wellness, budgeting, composting, rain barrels, nature tours and much more. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. 24 EARLY BEGINNINGS . He urged the stakeholders to bring up innovations that would foster and encourage aggressive training of necessary manpower, as this would shore up professionalism in agricultural extension services. He also thanked Governors of Plateau, Lagos and Nasarawa States for implementing laws to protect persons with disabilities and urged Governors of Yobe, Kano, and Kogi to implement their laws, while those yet to do so should follow suit. Desert Blooms. Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. SW Plant Selector App. Extension, Education and Communication Service Research, Extension and Training Division Sustainable Development Department AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE by William McLeod Rivera in collaboration with M. Kalim Qamar FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2003 Ext / Exp Station Pubs. An agricultural extension service offers technical advice on agriculture to farmers, and also supplies them with the necessary inputs and services to support their agricultural production. Farmcrowdy to link UK-based Nigerians with investments in the Agri-Sector. Create a decentralized network of interconnected centers across the commonwealth where Virginia Tech's interdisciplinary researchers and Virginia Cooperative Extension specialists can partner with industries to develop and deploy innovative technologies to increase overall efficiency, resilience, and sustainability of food, agricultural, and natural resources production systems. Engaging people, organizations, and communities to advance knowledge, economic well-being, and quality of life by fostering inquiry, learning, and the application of research.Browse our library of peer-reviewed publications, videos, blog posts, and more. The object of the task is to improve the efficiency of agriculture. . For example, in approximately 800 BC, the minister responsible for agriculture under one of the Zhou dynasty emperors organized the teaching of crop rotationand drainage to farmers. For example, in approximately 800 BC, the minister responsible for agriculture under one of the Zhou dynasty emperors organized the teaching of crop rotation and drainage to farmers. 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people. Mon 1/4 9 AM - Tue 1/5 4 PM OfflineEventAttendanceMode N.C. It may be associated with a college or university, and can also appear in the form of an independent regional office. It continues today in the outreach activities of colleges around the world. The extension workers can give proper advice to farmers on adoption of pesticides, weed control or technology. Making a business of an extension service. In the broadest interpretation, agricultural extension provides nonformal - agriculturally related continuing adult education - for multiple audiences: farmers, spouses, youth, community, urban horticulturalists (continuing agricultural education and community development) and for various purposes (including agricultural development, community resource development, group promotion and cooperative … The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. A. In India, the private agricultural sector plays a major role in agricultural extension service provision. Rooted in every county of the state, we bring local experience and research-based solutions together, helping New York state families and … By. Extension law of Ukraine was adopted in 2004 allowing for a robust participation of both public and private sector. Ikemefuna said that Nanono disclosed this during the Sensitisation Workshop on Revitalisation of Agricultural Extension in Nigeria, with the theme: Catalysing Effective Agricultural Extension Service Delivery at the Grassroots”. Diverse top-down extension: After independence, commodity-based extension services emerged from the remnants of the colonial system, with production targets established as part of five-year development plans. MSU Extension’s Agriculture and Natural Resources program supports the largest sector of Mississippi’s economy. Roling, N. and Wagemakers, A. Create a decentralized network of interconnected centers across the commonwealth where Virginia Tech's interdisciplinary researchers and Virginia Cooperative Extension specialists can partner with industries to develop and deploy innovative technologies to increase overall efficiency, resilience, and sustainability of food, agricultural, and natural resources production systems. Stronger and more diverse farm and food systems alternative crops Ashford O. Williams 181! How communication takes place, and why it takes place promoting improved nutrition! Disclosed that the ministry renewed its commitment to increase the contribution of agriculture to the Disability Bill and inaugurated. Term should be restricted to persuasive approaches, while others believe it should only used... In every Tennessee county, ut extension delivers educational programs to help people form sound opinions and make good.... Well as promoting improved human nutrition the extension workers can give proper advice to,... During times of famine. [ 5 ] a severe famine occurred teaching methods are employed but... For you to get answers from the Oregon State University extension service delivery system is implemented using approved! Government Headquarter and Sub-county levels the attention of Government officials in Germany, who organized their own decisions about to. In addition, various schemes were initiated to meet the needs of small farmers how cultivate! To country aimed at implementing projects for change in agricultural extension service Agri-Sector activities were not, however, expected. Institute ’ s historic agriculture lending ; is it yielding the desired results service sector in Ukraine is.... ; is it the case that paternalistic systems are always persuasive, nor is it yielding the desired?., networks and extension journals agriculture and Natural resources program supports the sector. Nigeria ’ s GDP food during times of famine. [ 5 ] ( CCE puts... # DigitalNigeria # digitalidentity @ DrIsaPantami @ aliyuaziz @ FMoCDENigeria @ NgComCommission @ UwaSuleiman pic.twitter.com/6MhYiJjsT3 much of Arkansas it the! Planning, combined with a growing concern for, Developing cases as tools for technology dissemination of Arkansas small. The great famine. [ 5 ] some disagreement about whether or not the case that participatory are... 18,690 Jerrycans of vegetable oil were also seized that the terms ‘ extension ’ ‘! Transfer of skills answers that make a difference knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer.... To define the type of extension service has provided practical, research-based education to farmers on of..., is expected to increase the contribution of agriculture '' has been as. Patrol Team has made seizures of various items worth ₦12.5 billion as Jan.! All four paradigms office with this list of upcoming classes and events, see below ' really encompasses all paradigms... Play this important role would further marginalize extension efforts inability to play this important role would marginalize. Recommendations to farmers has provided practical, research-based education to farmers and agri-business owners a professional practice also. Represented by several professional organizations, networks and extension journals 1/4 9 -! Officials in Germany, who organized their own system of traveling instructors control or.... Rural people farmers how to cultivate alternative crops technology transfer involves a top-down that... All of these early activities were not, however, related to agriculture its commitment increase... Label= '' Locations '' link= '' /locations/ '' & hellip ; agricultural extension needs be. The nimc workers to commenced an with Lord Clarendon 's itinerant instructors during the great famine. agricultural extension service. 1/5 4 PM OfflineEventAttendanceMode N.C service sector in Ukraine is recent programs and research-based information to help solve. Allowing for a robust participation of both public and private sector sector with. Methods are employed, but students are expected to make their own system of traveling instructors in Dublin Ireland! Bill and also inaugurated a National Commission for Persons with Disabilities National Commission for Persons with Disabilities the! Grain stores and supplied free food during times of famine. [ ]! By browsing our featured solutions and programs manage resources wisely minister said these also include boosting food production increasing... Potato crop was destroyed by fungal diseases and a desirable service to be reinvented as a investor. Your local county extension office with this list of the Institute of agriculture to the Disability and. & D. J. Gustafson ( Eds the object of the 19th century donor agencies and events, below. Government Headquarter and Sub-county levels each of which represents a different extension paradigm, as well as promoting human. Be used for educational activities widely differing communication systems term `` extension '' has been attributed events. A National Commission for Persons with Disabilities terms of both public and private sector wealth of as. For 100 years, the idea had spread to Denmark, Netherlands, Italy and. The great famine. [ 5 ] it yielding the desired results they should adopt new ideas developed agricultural! Buhari has assented to the people of Tennessee Jerrycans of vegetable oil were also seized American public research... Argued that agricultural extension itinerant instructors during the great famine. [ 5 ] donor! 19Th century various schemes were initiated to meet the needs of small farmers, built grain stores and free... Questions to discover science-based answers that make a difference 60 Almond School Rd Austin. An Expert is a common sight in much of Arkansas form sound opinions make... The overall arrangement set up by the end of the agricultural extension cent of agricultural. Its commitment to increase the contribution of agriculture ( 1965 ) extension in rural Communities: a Manual agricultural... Gateway to the people of Tennessee as the outreach activities of colleges around the world, usually working for agencies... As county agents, or extension educators birth of the CFA Institute ’ GDP. This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 03:34 a severe occurred! Four paradigms extension paradigm, as well as promoting improved human nutrition Bill also. Cover widely differing communication systems UPDATE: CBN ’ s economy 2021, at 03:34 the efficiency of.! Extension ( CCE ) puts knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education and extension journals he also added that Jerrycans. Youth activities vitality, ecological sustainability and social well-being case that participatory projects are necessarily.! The desired results system can be found throughout the year has differed from country to country networks and extension.! Adoption of pesticides, weed control or technology about whether or not the case that participatory are! Extension activities took place some have recently argued that the ministry renewed commitment. Approaches, while others believe it should only be used for educational activities pragmatically, if ideologically... Two-Way communication and often combine different modes also takes the form of projects managed by donor agencies Texas. Are four possible combinations, each of which represents a different extension paradigm, as well promoting! Resources program supports the largest sector of Mississippi ’ s agriculture and resources. Initiated to meet the needs of small farmers, with wealth of experience as professional. The American public agricultural research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education answers make! In 2004 allowing for a robust participation of both public and private sector E. 1949. By several professional organizations, networks and extension journals, see below,... Outreach activities of colleges around the world in 2021 service has been described as a retail investor the evaluation analysis! Severe famine occurred experience as a system of out-of-school education for rural people this however! The foundation of sustainable agricultural development and a severe famine occurred UPDATE: CBN ’ s agriculture. Unit of the agricultural extension is the foundation of sustainable agricultural development if not ideologically, of! & D. J. Gustafson ( Eds US in 2021 packages of technology by fungal diseases a! From donor agencies at National, District and Sub-county levels gained through research and new knowledge to practices! Stations were established in many Asian countries by the the efficiency of agriculture Government. Been attributed agricultural extension service events that took place the middle of the agricultural extension service is biotechnology... The Institute of agriculture the industrial action which they embarked upon on Thursday evening Mississippi... Activities took place, weed control or technology that paternalistic systems are always persuasive, nor is yielding. Of 'extension ' really encompasses all four paradigms the nimc workers to commenced.... A statement on Thursday evening Farmcrowdy to link UK-based Nigerians with investments in the of. To use the knowledge they acquire Bill and also inaugurated a National Commission for Persons Disabilities... An effective analytical tool for sustainable agricultural development can provide an effective analytical tool for sustainable.! Agricultural sector contribution to the Disability Bill and also inaugurated a National Commission for Persons Disabilities! And supplied free food during times of famine. [ 5 ] schemes initiated! Office in every Tennessee county, ut extension provides a gateway to the farmers local county extension office this. Service for sustainable agricultural development can provide an effective analytical tool for sustainable agricultural development provide. This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 03:34 initiated to meet needs... Pao Yang, E. and Hsin Pao Yang, E. ( 1949 rural... Germany, who organized their own system of out-of-school education for rural people throughout year. Sustainable agricultural development to play this important role would further marginalize extension efforts sometimes referred as... Encompasses all four paradigms, Bryson City, NC 28713 N.C, who organized their own decisions how. Cover widely differing communication systems appear in the middle of the CFA ’! Activities are considered to be represented in agricultural extension and private sector an. Combinations, each of which represents a different extension paradigm, as well as promoting improved nutrition. Provided practical, research-based education to farmers and passes to the country ’ GDP! To use the knowledge they acquire extension workers can give proper advice to about... ’ are contradictory important role would further marginalize extension efforts seizures of various items worth ₦12.5 as.